PBR GUIDE LINKS

UE4 CUSTOM VIEW MODES (made in UE 4.19)
The UE4 custom view modes below help artists visually problem-solve different aspects of their materials and lighting. Some of the debug overlays are for out-of-range PBR values, nit/false color heatmaps, Rec.709 broadcast legal levels, and luminance visualizers for base color/focal point control.

SUBSTANCE DESIGNER PBR UTILITY NODES FOR UE4
These PBR utility nodes were designed to work within UE4's PBR range. Three of them use physically-based data for dielectric, metallic, and specular presets. Another validates whether your dielectric/metallic albedo values are within/outside UE4's PBR range, while the final PBR utility node can adjust out-of-range base colors.

UE4 NEUTRAL LIGHTING ENVIRONMENT (made in UE 4.18)
The neutral lighting environment below uses all dynamic effects, like LPVs, DFAO, SSR, SSAO, RTDF, volumetric lighting, Convolution Bloom, bokeh lens flares, utilization of real-world data, etc., for quick material/asset testing without the need to bake lighting. The scene includes varying, physically-approximated TODs, tools, and PBR materials for visual reference. 

PBR ​LIGHTING GUIDE
SectionsLight Terms Guide | Light Values Guide | Color Temperature Guide | Sunny 16 Rule Guide

​Note: This guide assumes the reader has a basic understanding of PBR.

Generally, daytime lighting has a ~4:1 sun/sky (direct light vs shade) intensity ratio, sunrise/sunset is ~3:1, and overcast is ~2:1. However, since lighting conditions vary by location, time of day, weather, pollution/atmosphere, season, etc., the values listed below should only be used as a guide.

LIGHT TERMS GUIDE
TERM
DEFINITION
​Lumen
​Total emitted light.
Lux
Reflected surface illuminance. Also, 1 lux = 1 lm/m².
Cd/m² (cd = candela)
Light source intensity per square meter.
​Nit
= cd/m².
​IRE
Video exposure unit.
Inverse Square Falloff
Describes physical light falloff. Also, intensity (cd) ∝ 1/square of the distance.
Energy Conservation
Reflected light is never brighter than its cast light.
Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
(BRDF) Defines reflected light.
Direct Light
Light source light.
Indirect Light
Bounce light.
Ambient Light
Surrounding environment light.
Diffuse Light
Reflected surface light.
Key Light
Primary light source.
Fill Light
​Supplementary light used to brighten shadows/content and/or to simulate bounce light.
Rim Light
​Light contouring subjects for background separation, thus implying depth.
Motivated Light
Light that simulates physical light sources, like a light bulb or window.
Unmotivated Light
Support light that doesn't have a physical representation.
High-Key Lighting
Bright, low-contrast lighting.
Low-Key Lighting
Dark, high-contrast lighting.

LIGHT VALUES GUIDE
DESCRIPTION​
LUX, NIT, or CD/M² VALUES
​Brightest Sunlight
120,000 - 125,000​
Sunlight Range
30,000 - 125,000
Bright Sunlight​​
111,000
White Paper at Sunny Noon
25,000
Clear, Midday Shade
​20,000
​Fluorescent Lights
12,000
Brightest, White Clouds
​10,000
Average, Clear Sky
​5,000 - 7,000
Midday Overcast
​1,000 - 2,000
HDR10 LCD Monitor
1,000
Clear Sunrise/Sunset ​​​
400​​​
​LCD Monitor
250
Thickest, Midday ​Storm Clouds ​​
​< 200​
Sunrise/Sunset Overcast
40
Floodlit Buildings
​2
Thickest Sunrise/Sunset Storm Clouds ​​​
< 1​​​​​​​​
Clear Night with Full Moon
0.25
Clear Night with Quarter Moon
​0.01​
Clear, Moonless Night with Airglow
0.002​​
Clear, Moonless Night
0.0002​​
Moonless Night Overcast
0.0001

COLOR TEMPERATURE GUIDE
​Color temperature is defined by the temperature of a blackbody emitting light with a particular color. Blackbodies also absorb all light casted onto them.  Below are color temperature examples.
DESCRIPTION​
COLOR TEMPERATURE (K)
Clear, Blue Sky
10,000+
Hazy Sky
8,000
​Outdoor Shade
7,000 - 8,000
Daytime Overcast
6,000 - 7,000
LCD Monitor
6,500
​Noon and Camera/Studio Flash
5,500
​Early Morning/Evening - Afternoon
3,500 - 5,000
Fluorescent Lights 
​4,000 
1-hour After Sunrise/Before Sunset
3,500 - 3,600
​Studio/Photoflood Lamps and Tungsten Lights
​3,200
​Sunrise/Sunset
1,850 - 3,100
​Halogen Lights
3,000
​Incandescent Lights
2,400 2,800
High-Pressure Sodium Lights
2,200
Candle Flame
1,850
Match Flame
1,700 - 1,800
Low-Pressure Sodium Lights
​1,700

SUNNY 16 RULE GUIDE
​The Sunny 16 Rule, which can be viewed in the chart below, approximates correct daylight exposures without a light meter. The camera's ISO and shutter speed share a reciprocal relationship. 
ISO
SUNNY - f/22
(sand/snow)
SHUTTER SPEED
SUNNY - f/16
​(strong shadows​)
SHUTTER SPEED
PARTLY CLOUDY - f/11
(soft shadows)
SHUTTER SPEED
CLOUDY - f/8
(faint shadows)
SHUTTER SPEED
CLOUDY - f/5.6
(no shadows)
SHUTTER SPEED
SUNSET - f/4
(long shadows)​
SHUTTER SPEED
100
1/100 or 1/125
1/100 or 1/125
1/100 or 1/125
1/100 or 1/125
1/100 or 1/125
1/100 or 1/125
200
1/200 or 1/250
1/200 or 1/250
1/200 or 1/250
1/200 or 1/250
1/200 or 1/250
1/200 or 1/250
400
1/400 or 1/500
1/400 or 1/500
1/400 or 1/500
1/400 or 1/500
1/400 or 1/500
1/400 or 1/500
800
1/800 or 1/1,000
1/800 or 1/1,000
1/800 or 1/1,000
1/800 or 1/1,000
1/800 or 1/1,000
1/800 or 1/1,000

UE4 PBR LIGHTING GUIDE (requires UE 4.20+)
Sections: ​The Matted, White Paper Test | UE4 Cubemap Orientation Guide

Note: This guide assumes the reader has a basic understanding of PBR.

​•  Sun: Uses lux values. You can apply the Light Values Guide and Color Temperature Guide data to the sun's Intensity/Temperature parameters.
Note: ​If you’re trying to align the sun’s location to one in a skybox texture, you can use UE4’s BP_Sky_Sphere to assist you. This can be achieved by either adjusting the sun’s position to match the skybox’s sun or by rotating the skybox itself. By toggling the visibility of the BP_Sky_Sphere, making sure you have the correct directional light actor assigned to it, and refreshing its material to update its procedural sun texture whenever you make sun rotational changes, can visually help you align the sun and the skybox’s sun. Techniques for skybox setup can be found in either The Matted, White Paper Test or UE4 Cubemap Orientation Guide sections.
•  Sky: Uses cd/m²​, or nit, values. The Pixel Inspector (Window > Developer Tools > Pixel Inspector) analyzes scene pixels for sky intensity values via its HDR Luminance reader. (This method can be used to standardize emissive texture values.) You can apply the Light Values Guide data for sky intensity values.
•  Spot/Point/Rect Lights: Uses unitless, candela, or lumen values. (Rect Lights' size offsets their intensity.) You can apply the Light Values Guide and Color Temperature Guide data to the lights' Intensity/Temperature parameters.
  ​Atmospheric Fog approximates light scattering effects in the atmosphere. This feature can be used by adding an Exponential Height Fog to your scene and enabling its Volumetric Fog option. You can only have one active fog actor at a time. Also, it’s recommended whenever you are roughing in your scene’s lighting, always start with sun, sky, and fog elements due to their relationship to one another.
​For lights to interact with the volumetric fog, you need to enable/adjust their Volumetric Scatter Intensity and Cast Volumetric Shadow parameters. Movable/stationary lights yield higher-resolution results with volumetric fog than static lights/volumetric lightmaps.
  To get the sky’s average luminance value in cd/m², or nits, sample sky intensity values from midtone areas via the Pixel Inspector. Since reading individual pixels can vary, it’s best to average large portions of pixel values first for easier sky analysis. This can be achieved by loading the sky texture into the Texture Properties Editor, lowering its resolution or increasing its mip level, saving it, and then analyzing the lower-resolution sky in the viewport. Techniques for adjusting sky intensity values  can be found in The Matted, White Paper Test section.
​Below is an example of an adjusted sky texture’s mip level. The one on the left has a resolution of 4,096 x 2,048 (mip level: 0), and the one on the right has a resolution of 32 x 16 (mip level: 7). It's important to note that each lower mip map level is half the resolution as the one before it.
NoteSky lights capture scenes in a cubemap format for ambient lighting and reflection contributions. (The lowest mip map level of a cubemap is used for ambient lighting, while the higher levels are for reflections/roughness textures.) You can add color to the lower hemisphere of your environment light by enabling the Lower Hemisphere is Solid Color option and adjusting the sky light’s Lower Hemisphere Color parameter. This can be used to simulate the average, reflected ground light/color. In addition, you can leave the color black to only have ambient light cast from the upper hemisphere. (Sky color drives exterior shadow color.) This method allows baked bounce light to be more accurate for local, reflected ground light/color.
  Physically-based camera exposure can be controlled by the EV100 Editor overrides, which is located in the viewport's Lit menu. If you choose to use it, uncheck the Game Settings first.
For additional control over physical camera attributes, you can use the Post Process Volume’s camera parameters. (Post Process Volume > Lens > Exposure > Metering Mode: Manual – the Camera options then become active.) Moreover, you can apply the Sunny 16 Rule Guide data here. It’s also advised to leave the tonemapper alone unless you're trying to mimic a specific film stock.
You can also switch the Post Process Volume's Metering Mode to Auto Exposure Basic (Post Process Volume > Lens > Exposure > Metering Mode: Auto Exposure Basic) and still use UE4's PBR lighting system. However, you will need to increase the Max Brightness to approximately "10,000" for it to properly auto-adjust to the scene's higher luminance range.
 
Note: When Min Brightness = Max Brightness, auto-exposure is disabled. Further, sunny scenes typically work better with larger exposure ranges, while cloudy environments use smaller ranges due to more evenly diffuse light.
Note: If Pre-exposure (Project Setting > Engine > Rendering > Apply Pre-exposure before writing to the scene color) is enabled, previous frame scene exposure is then applied within shaders. In effect, Pixel Inspector readings will not provide original scene luminance values. While this option is beneficial for bright lights and increased Auto Exposure Basic quality, it should be activated after you’re done using the Pixel Inspector. 
  Since light calculations occur in linear color space, it’s advised to sometimes view sRGB albedo textures in this format to better understand how base colors impact lighting. (Typically, linear values are darker than sRGB ones.) For example, linear albedo values that appear too dark may not bounce enough light due to its high-absorption properties, thus potentially flattening lighting results. Inversely, linear albedo values that are very bright may reflect too much indirect light, creating a scene that could be hard to balance. (Most dielectric albedo colors exist in the sRGB midtones, while a majority of metallic albedo colors reside in the 218-255 sRGB range.) Finally, albedo values that are too saturated may scatter overly-colored bounce light, rendering a potentially undesirable product. You can visit the Albedo Luminance Range section for more information on suggested PBR base color value ranges. 

Below are other material properties to consider regarding light interactivity.
MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION
Transparent
Low-absorption and no scattering.
Translucent
Low-absorption and high-scattering.
Opaque
High-absorption or reflectance and low-scattering.
Note: UE4 uses the ACES Filmic Tonemapper to help map HDR values and wide color gamuts to LDR displays and to future-proof content. While using the tone mapping function, visuals can obtain higher quality and more realistic results. For instance, colors become more desaturated the brighter it gets, there's a reduction of flattened highlights, a greater use of contrast range, and shading/color is better preserved. (For comparative purposes, you can enable/disable the ACES Tonemapper by going to the Viewport > Show > Post Processing > Tonemapper.) In addition, the Rec.709 color profile is UE4’s default viewing space for LDR displays so it can match broadcast standards used by console games.

THE MATTED, WHITE PAPER TEST ​(made in UE 4.20)
​To confirm the accuracy of UE4’s PBR lighting system, I created a simple scene to evaluate it. The test uses physical values of matted, white paper and real-world data for sun/sky intensities. You can click on the gallery images below to learn more about this process.

UE4 CUBEMAP ORIENTATION GUIDE (for custom-cubemapped skyboxes)
​Cubemap panels need to be arranged in a specific manner for correct orientation in UE4. The chart below represents these panels in a horizontal strip format, ordered from left to right, as you go down the list. 
AXIS
ROTATION
+X
90° CCW
-X
90° CW
+Y
180°
-Y
No Rotation
+Z
No Rotation
-Z
No Rotation
Alternatively, you can import a 32-bit OpenEXR sky texture with an equirectangular, 2:1 aspect ratio, use it within a material, then assign that material to a sphere covering the whole background, and capture the results in a cubemap via the sky light. Techniques for skybox setup can be found in The Matted, White Paper Test section.

​​GENERAL TEXTURING GUIDE
Sections: Texture Type GuideEdge Padding Guide​

​Note: This guide assumes the reader has a basic understanding of PBR.

TEXTURE TYPE GUIDE
It’s important that textures are interpreted in the correct color space, so below is a guide to help with this process.
MAP
DEFINITION
# OF CHANNELS
COLOR SPACE
Albedo
Base colors with no lighting/spec/shading data. Most albedo values exist in the midtones.
3 | RGB
sRGB
Normal
Baked, high-res surface detail with vector directionality data for direct light interaction.
3 | RGB
Linear RGB
AO​
Blocks ambient light.
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
​Cavity
​Micro-ambient occlusion. 
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
​Height
​Surface elevation information.
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
Metallic
​Determines if a material is a metal, dielectric, or a mix. 
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
Opacity
Transparency.
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
​Roughness
​Defines reflective surface properties. 
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
Transmissive
​Controls scattered light passing through a surface.
1 | Grayscale
Linear RGB
Note: Channel packing multiple grayscale maps into one texture can save on memory cost.

EDGE PADDING GUIDE
Proper edge padding can minimize color bleeding artifacts from mip mapping. The chart below displays different texture resolutions with corresponding edge padding values for UV shell spacing and downsizing of textures.
TEXTURE RESOLUTION
EDGE PADDING VALUES
256 x 256
2px
512 x 512
4px
1,024 x 1,024
8px
2,048 x 2,048
16px
4,096 x 4,096
≥ 16px

UE4 PBR MATERIAL GUIDE (requires UE 4.20+)
SectionsAlbedo Luminance Range | Metallic Range | Roughness Range | Specular Guide | Index of Refraction Guide | Clear Coat GuideGrays Guide | Gamma Conversion Guide | Dielectric Albedo Values Guide | Metallic Albedo Values Guide | Albedo L​uminance Guide | Albedo S​aturation ​Guide

Note: This guide assumes the reader has a basic understanding of PBR.

​UE4 supports the metallic/roughness PBR workflow. Some of the values listed below work best in UE4 and may not be suited for other applications. Further, UE4's environment and color picker live in linear color space, but artists typically work in sRGB. In effect, the following values are in sRGB first with corresponding sRGB color swatches. 

Albedo LUMINANCE range

MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
NORMALIZED VALUES
Charcoal 
Dielectric albedo values control reflected color and most exist in the midtone range. Charcoal is the darkest dielectric albedo value that should be used. Insulators don't typically have colored specular reflectivity, but lights affect reflected color.
​​sRGB = ​​2b2b2b
Linear RGB = 
060606
​​sRGB = ​43
Linear RGB = 
​5
​​sRGB = ​0.17
Linear RGB = 
​​​0.02
Fresh Snow 
Dielectric albedo values control reflected color and most exist in the midtone range. Fresh snow is the brightest dielectric albedo value that should be used. Insulators don't typically have colored specular reflectivity, but lights affect reflected color.
​​sRGB = ​​e8e8e8​
Linear RGB = cecece
​​sRGB = ​232
Linear RGB = 
​207
​​​sRGB = ​0.91
Linear RGB = 
0.81
Metallic
Unlike dielectric base colors, metallic albedo brightness controls specular intensity, which can contain color. Conductive albedo values fall within this row’s range. 
-◼
​sRGB = d9d9d9​ - ffffff
Linear RGB = b1b1b1 - ffffff
​​sRGB = 217 - 255
Linear RGB = 179 - 255
​sRGB = 0.85 - 1
Linear RGB = 0.7 - 1


Metallic Range

MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
NORMALIZED VALUES
Dielectric
On average, most dielectrics have a F0 value of 4% reflectivity and do not require a metallic map. If they are part of an asset that needs one, the non-metal portions should be black. Further, metallic map properties should represent the top layer of the material, like painted metal, which would not be metallic in this case.
​sRGB = 000000
Linear RGB = 000000

​sRGB = 0
Linear RGB = 0

​​sRGB = 0
Linear RGB = 0

​Metallic
This map determines whether the albedo map is treated as reflected color or metallic reflectance values. Most metals have a value of 1, and the metallic map is multiplied against the base color texture. You can have gradient transitions between insulators and conductors. Exceptions, like metalloids, may use values that are neither 0 or 1.
​​sRGB = ffffff
Linear RGB = ffffff

​​sRGB = 255
Linear RGB = 255

​​sRGB = 1
Linear RGB = 1

The images below display ​increasing dielectric-to-conductor metallic properties.

Roughness Range

The roughness map controls size/spread, sharpness, and light direction for rough/smooth reflective surface attributes. Real-world data is not used for its rendering, thus allowing for more artistic interpretation. The images below display increasing rough-to-glossy properties for both dielectric (top row) and metallic materials. (bottom row)
Note: Roughness and normal maps are used to describe micro/macro surface detail.

Specular GUIDE

UE4’s specularity has a default value of 0.5, or 4% reflectance, to represent common dielectrics. (Metals are not affected by this property since their albedo maps control specular strength.) However, more unique materials, like semiconductors and gemstones, can be higher. Since all surfaces have some level of specular reflectivity, this property should never be set to 0. You can connect cavity maps to it, but they should first be multiplied against the default 0.5 value. This is for consistency with UE4’s average dielectric F0 reflectance value, while removing specularity in baked, micro-occluded areas.

​UE4 remaps the normalized 0 - 1 range to 0 - 0.08 for specular input. This means UE4’s specular component can have a maximum of 8% for its dielectric F0 reflectance value. (F0 is the reflected light intensity at 0° to the view frustum. The “F” component is Fresnel, which describes varying reflected light strength based on viewing angle.) The formulas below calculate the dielectric F0 reflectance value from IOR, followed by applying a conversion for UE4 specular reflectivity use.
DIELECTRIC F0 REFLECTANCE VALUE FORMULA​
​( (1 - IOR) / (1 + IOR) )² = Dielectric F0 Reflectance Value
D
ielectric F0 Reflectance Value / 0.08 = UE4 Specular Reflectivity Value
MATERIAL
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
NORMALIZED VALUES
Ice
​​sRGB = 818181​
Linear RGB = 
383838
​​sRGB = ​129
Linear RGB = 57
​​sRGB = ​0.506
​Linear RGB = 
0.224​
Water
sRGB = ​898989
​Linear RGB = 
404040​
​​sRGB = ​137
​Linear RGB = 65
​​sRGB = ​0.537
​Linear RGB = 
0.255​
Milk
​​sRGB = ​​8f8f8f
​Linear RGB = 
464646​
​​sRGB = ​143
​Linear RGB = 71
​​sRGB = ​0.561
​Linear RGB = 
0.277​
Skin
​​sRGB = ​​9e9e9e​
​Linear RGB = 575757​
​​sRGB = ​158
​Linear RGB = 89
​​sRGB = ​0.62
​Linear RGB = 
0.35​
Glass
​​sRGB = ​​bababa
​Linear RGB = 7d7d7d

​​sRGB = ​186
​Linear RGB = 128
​​sRGB = ​0.73
​Linear RGB = 
0.5​
Plastic
​​sRGB = ​​bababa
​Linear RGB = 7d7d7d

​​sRGB = ​186
​Linear RGB = 128
​​sRGB = ​0.73
​Linear RGB = 
0.5​
Quartz
​◼
​​sRGB = ​c5c5c5​
​Linear RGB = 8e8e8e​
​​sRGB = ​197
​Linear RGB = 145
​​sRGB = ​0.773
​Linear RGB = 
0.57​
The images below display increasing specular properties.

 Index of Refraction gUIDE

Index of Refraction, or IOR, describes how much light bends through medium to another. The values below are based on real-world, optical measurements.
MATERIAL
INDEX OF REFRACTION
Air
Linear Value = 1​
Ice
Linear Value = 1.31​
Water
​​Linear Value = 1.33​
Common Dielectrics
​​Linear Value = 1.5​
Glass
​​Linear Value = 1.52​
Diamond
Linear Value = 2.42
The images below display increasing index of refraction properties.

CLEAR COAT GUIDE
Clear Coat simulates multilayered materials with dual normal/roughness parameters for a transparent film layer effect on top of dielectric/metallic surfaces. Examples of this kind of material include lacquer, films over car paint/soda cans, and carbon fiber. To use it in UE4, it first needs to be enabled within the Project Settings, followed by changing a material’s Shading Model to Clear Coat. The chart below covers some Clear Coat material properties.
ATTRIBUTE
DESCRIPTION
Clear Coat
​Clear Coat layer strength. This should usually be set to 0 or 1. (black or white for a texture map)
​Clear Coat Roughness
Clear Coat layer roughness attribute.
Normal
Clear Coat layer normal attribute.
​Roughness
​Bottom layer roughness attribute.
ClearCoatBottomNormal
Bottom layer normal attribute. This node needs to be added, with a normal map connected to it, for dual-normal/multidirectional direct light interaction
The images below display increasing Clear Coat properties.

GRAYS GUIDE

GRAY
DESCRIPTION
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
NORMALIZED VALUES
Neutral Gray
Neutral gray can be  used for texturing. 
​sRGB = bababa​
​Linear RGB = 7d7d7d
​sRGB = 186
​Linear RGB = 128
​sRGB = 0.73
​Linear RGB = 0.5

Middle Gray 
18%-gray can be used for lighting tests.
sRGB = 757575​
​Linear RGB = 2d2d2d
​sRGB = 117
​Linear RGB = 46
sRGB = 0.46
​Linear RGB = 0.18 

Gamma Conversion GUIDE

GAMMA CONVERSION
FORMULA
Gamma Correction-to-Linear RGB
Gamma Correction Value ^ (  1 / 2.2  ) = Linear RGB Value
Linear RGB-to-Gamma Correction
Linear RGB Value ^ 2.2 = Gamma Correction Value
Normalized Gamma Correction-to-Normalized Linear RGB
Normalized Gamma Correction Value ^ 2.2 = Normalized Linear RGB Value
Normalized Linear RGB Value * 255 = Linear RGB Channel Value​
Normalized Linear RGB-to-Normalized Gamma Correction
Normalized Linear RGB Value ^ (  1 / 2.2  ) = Normalized Gamma Correction Value
Normalized Gamma Correction Value * 255 = Gamma Correction Channel Value

 Dielectric ALBEDO VALUES GUIDE

MATERIAL
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
Forged Iron
sRGB = ​3a383b
​Linear RGB = ​
0a0a0b
sRGB = ​​​(58, 56, 59)
​Linear RGB = ​(10, 9, 10)

Dark Soil
sRGB = ​​553d31​
​Linear RGB = 
170b07
sRGB = ​​​(85, 61, 49)
​Linear RGB = ​(23, 11, 7)

Worn Asphalt
sRGB = ​​5b5b5b​
​Linear RGB = ​
1a1a1a
sRGB = ​​​(91, 91, 91)
​Linear RGB = ​(26, 26, 26)

Varnished Wood
sRGB = ​​875c3c​
​Linear RGB = ​
3e1b0b
sRGB = ​​(135, 92, 60)
Linear RGB = ​(63, 27, 11)
Tree Bark
sRGB = ​​72675b​
​Linear RGB = ​
2b221a
sRGB = ​​(114, 103, 91)
​Linear RGB = ​(43, 35, 26)

Green Vegetation
sRGB = ​​7b824e
​Linear RGB = ​
323913​
sRGB = ​​​(123, 130, 78)
​Linear RGB = ​(51, 58, 19)

Gray Plaster
sRGB = ​​818181​
​Linear RGB = ​
383838​
sRGB = ​​​(129, 129, 129)
​Linear RGB = ​(57, 57, 57)

Brick
sRGB = ​​947d75​
​Linear RGB = ​
4b342d
sRGB = (148, 125, 117)
​Linear RGB = ​(77, 53, 46)

Old Concrete
sRGB = ​​878883​
​Linear RGB = ​
3e3f3a
sRGB = ​​(135, 136, 131)
​Linear RGB = ​(63, 64, 59)

Gray Paint
sRGB = ​​a3a3a3​
​Linear RGB = ​
5d5d5d
sRGB = ​​(163, 163, 163)
Linear RGB = ​(95, 95, 95)
Sand
sRGB = ​​b1a784​
​Linear RGB = ​
70623b
sRGB = ​​​(177, 167, 132)
​Linear RGB = ​(114, 100, 60)

Clean Cement
sRGB = ​​c0bfbb​
​Linear RGB = ​
86857f
sRGB = ​​(192, 191, 187)
Linear RGB = ​(137, 135, 129)
Rough Wood
sRGB = ​​e0c7a8​
​Linear RGB = ​be
9264
sRGB = ​​​(224, 199, 168)
​Linear RGB = ​(192, 148, 102)

Metallic Albedo Values GUIDE

MATERIAL
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
Gold
sRGB = ​ffe29b​
​Linear RGB = ​​ffc253
sRGB = ​​(255, 226, 155)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(255, 196, 85)
Iron
sRGB = ​c4c7c7
​Linear RGB = ​8d9292
sRGB = ​​​​(196, 199, 199)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(143, 148, 148)
Copper
sRGB = ​fad0c0​
​Linear RGB = ​f4a186
sRGB = ​​​​(250, 208, 192)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(244, 163, 137)​
Silver
sRGB = ​fcfaf5​
​Linear RGB = ​f9f4e9
sRGB = ​​​​(252, 250, 245)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(248, 244, 234)
Cobalt
sRGB = ​d3d2cf​
​Linear RGB = ​a6a49f
sRGB = ​​​​(211, 210, 207)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(168, 166, 161)​
Aluminum
sRGB = ​f5f6f6​
​Linear RGB = ​e9ebeb
sRGB = ​​​​(245, 246, 246)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(234, 236, 236)
Titanium
sRGB = ​c1bab1​
​Linear RGB = ​887d70
sRGB = ​​​​(193, 186, 177)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(138, 127, 114)​
Chromium
sRGB = ​c2c3c3​
​Linear RGB = ​8a8b8b​
sRGB = ​​​​(194, 195, 195)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(140, 142, 141)
​Platinum
sRGB = ​d5d0c8​
​Linear RGB = ​aaa193
sRGB = ​​​​(213, 208, 200)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(172, 163, 149)​
Nickel
sRGB = ​d3cbbe​
​Linear RGB = ​a69883
sRGB = ​​​​(211, 203, 190)
​Linear RGB = ​​
(168, 154, 133)

ALBEDO ​​LUMINANCE GUIDE
LUMINANCE FORMULA (Y CHANNEL) 
( (0.3 * Normalized R Channel) + (0.59 * Normalized G Channel) + (0.11 * Normalized B Channel) ) = Normalized Luminance Value
​Normalized Luminance Value * 255 = Luminance Channel Value
MATERIAL
COLOR SWATCH
HEXADECIMAL VALUES
RGB CHANNEL VALUES
NORMALIZED VALUES
​Silver
sRGB = fafafa​
Linear RGB = ​​f4f4f4
sRGB = ​​​250
Linear RGB = ​​​244
sRGB = ​​​0.98
Linear RGB = ​0.957
​Aluminum
sRGB = ​​f6f6f6
Linear RGB = ​​ebebeb
sRGB = ​​​246
Linear RGB = ​​​235
sRGB = ​​​0.965
Linear RGB = 0.​​922
​Gold
sRGB = ​​e6e6e6
Linear RGB = ​​cacaca
sRGB = ​​​230​
Linear RGB = ​​202
sRGB = ​​​0.902
Linear RGB = ​​0.792
​Copper
sRGB = ​​d9d9d9
Linear RGB = ​​b1b1b1
sRGB = ​​​217​
Linear RGB = ​​177
sRGB = ​​​0.851
Linear RGB = ​​0.694
​Cobalt
sRGB = ​​d2d2d2
Linear RGB = ​​a4a4a4
sRGB = ​​​210​
Linear RGB = ​​164
sRGB = ​​​0.824
Linear RGB = ​​0.643
​Platinum
sRGB = ​​d0d0d0
Linear RGB = ​​a1a1a1
sRGB = ​​​208​
Linear RGB = ​​161
sRGB = ​​​0.816
Linear RGB = ​​0.631
​Nickel
sRGB = ​​cccccc
Linear RGB = ​​9a9a9a
sRGB = ​​​204​
Linear RGB = ​​154
sRGB = ​​​0.8
Linear RGB = ​​0.604
​Rough Wood
sRGB = ​​cbcbcb
Linear RGB = ​​989898​
sRGB = ​​​203​
Linear RGB = ​​152
sRGB = ​​​0.796
Linear RGB = 0.​​596
​Iron
sRGB = ​​c6c6c6
Linear RGB = ​​909090​
sRGB = ​​​198​
Linear RGB = ​​144
sRGB = ​​​0.776
Linear RGB = ​​0.565
Chromium
sRGB = ​​c3c3c3
Linear RGB = ​​8b8b8b
sRGB = ​​​195​
Linear RGB = ​​139
sRGB = ​​​0.765
Linear RGB = ​​0.545
​Clean Cement
sRGB = ​​bfbfbf
Linear RGB = ​​858585​
sRGB = ​​​191​
Linear RGB = ​​133
sRGB = ​​​0.749
Linear RGB = ​​0.522
​Titanium
sRGB = ​​bbbbbb
Linear RGB = ​​7f7f7f
sRGB = ​​​187​
Linear RGB = ​​127
sRGB = ​​​0.733
Linear RGB = ​​0.498
​Sand
sRGB = ​​a7a7a7
Linear RGB = ​​626262​
sRGB = ​​​167​
Linear RGB = ​​98
sRGB = ​​​0.655
Linear RGB = ​​0.384
​Gray Paint
sRGB = ​​a3a3a3
Linear RGB = 5d5d5d​​
sRGB = ​​​163​
Linear RGB = ​​93
sRGB = ​​​0.639
Linear RGB = ​​0.365
​Old Concrete
sRGB = ​​878787
Linear RGB = ​​3e3e3e
sRGB = ​​​135​
Linear RGB = ​​62
sRGB = ​​​0.529
Linear RGB = ​​0.243
​Brick
sRGB = ​​828282
Linear RGB = ​​393939​
sRGB = ​​​130​
Linear RGB = ​​57
sRGB = ​​​0.51
Linear RGB = ​​0.224
​Gray Plaster
sRGB = ​​818181
Linear RGB = ​​383838​
sRGB = ​​​129​
Linear RGB = ​​56
sRGB = ​​​0.506
Linear RGB = ​​0.22
​Green Vegetation
sRGB = ​​7e7e7e
Linear RGB = ​​353535​
sRGB = ​​​126​
Linear RGB = ​​
sRGB = ​​​0.494
Linear RGB = ​​0.208
​Tree Bark
sRGB = 686868​​
Linear RGB = ​​232323​
sRGB = ​​​104​
Linear RGB = ​​35
sRGB = ​​​0.408
Linear RGB = ​​0.137
​Varnished Wood
sRGB = ​​666666
Linear RGB = 222222​​​
sRGB = ​​​102​
Linear RGB = ​​34
sRGB = ​​​0.4
Linear RGB = ​​0.133
​Worn Asphalt
sRGB = ​​5a5a5a
Linear RGB = ​​1a1a1a
sRGB = ​​​90​
Linear RGB = ​​26
sRGB = ​​​0.353
Linear RGB = ​​0.102
​Dark Soil
sRGB = ​​424242
Linear RGB = ​​0d0d0d
sRGB = ​​​66​
Linear RGB = ​​13
sRGB = ​​​0.259
Linear RGB = ​​0.051
Forged Iron
sRGB = ​383838
Linear RGB = 0a0a0a​​
sRGB = ​​​56​
Linear RGB = ​​10
sRGB = ​​​0.22
Linear RGB = ​​0.039

ALBEDO ​​SATURATION GUIDE
SATURATION FORMULA​
( (Max(RGB Channel Value) - Min(RGB Channel Value)) / Max(RGB Channel Value) ) * 100 = Saturation %
MATERIAL
COLOR SWATCH
SATURATION PERCENT
​​Varnished Wood
sRGB = 56%
​Linear RGB = 82%
​​Dark Soil
sRGB = 42%
​Linear RGB = ​​70%
​Green Vegetation
sRGB = 40%
​Linear RGB = ​67%
Gold
sRGB = 39%
​Linear RGB = ​67%
Sand
sRGB = 25%
​Linear RGB = ​​47%
Rough Wood
sRGB = 25%
​Linear RGB = ​​​47%
Copper
sRGB = 23%
​Linear RGB = ​​​45%
Brick
sRGB = 21%
​Linear RGB = ​​40%
​​Tree Bark
sRGB = 20%
​Linear RGB = ​​40%
​​Nickel
sRGB = 10%
​Linear RGB = ​21%
​​Titanium
sRGB = 8%
​Linear RGB = ​​18%
Platinum
sRGB = 6%
​Linear RGB = ​​14%
​Forged Iron
sRGB = 5%
​Linear RGB = ​​9%
​Old Concrete
sRGB = 4%
​Linear RGB = ​​8%
​​Silver
sRGB = 3%
​Linear RGB = ​​6%
​​Clean Cement
​sRGB = 3%
​Linear RGB = ​​5%
Cobalt
sRGB = 2%
​Linear RGB = ​​4%
Iron
sRGB = 2%
​Linear RGB = ​​3%
Chromium
sRGB = 1%
​Linear RGB = ​​1%
Aluminum
sRGB = 1%
​Linear RGB = ​​1%
​Worn Asphalt
sRGB = 0%
​Linear RGB = ​​0%
​​Gray Plaster
sRGB = 0%
​Linear RGB = ​​0%
​​Gray Paint
sRGB = 0%
​Linear RGB = ​​0%